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Title Document type Published Publisher
Infrastructure cuttings - condition appraisal and remedial treatment

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Cuttings perform an important function in the efficient operation of an infrastructure network, whether in railway, highway or waterway. It is essential that they are recognised accordingly within the asset management policy. This book presents vital information for infrastructure owners, designers, contractors and maintenance managers. It offers guidance on the management, condition appraisal and repair of infrastructure cuttings. This guide is based on a detailed review of published literature and infrastructure owner’s procedures, consultation with experts and practitioners within the field, and includes case studies demonstrating good practice. It addresses technical issues in design, repair and maintenance, and is published as an enabling document to promote the managerial and engineering requirements of infrastructure cuttings.

Secondary Doc. 01/09/03 CIRIA Add icon
The speeding driver: Who, Why and How?

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The Scottish Executive commissioned research to follow up previous studies in 1991, 1994 and 1996 on the causes and consequences of speeding. This study consists of: - a review of national and international literature, - focus groups with drivers of different ages, gender, trip obligations and inclinations towards speeding, interviews with crash-involved drivers, - a review of recent anti-speeding campaigns and initiatives in Scotland, - an analysis of a sample of police records of speeding offences, and - an extensive household survey of over 1,000 Scottish car drivers Results were compared with previous studies and a comprehensive picture of the attitudes and behaviour of speeding drivers in Scotland and of the association between their speeding behaviours and their recent crash-history was compiled.

Research 14/08/03 Scottish Executive Add icon
Manual on scour at bridges and other hydraulic structures

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Structures built in or near rivers and other channels can be vulnerable to scour around their foundations. If the depth of the scour becomes significant, the stability of the foundations may be endangered, with a consequent risk of damage or failure of the structure. In the past 15 years, there have been several bridge failures, resulting in transport disruption, economic loss and, on occasion, loss of life. Some of these failures are included in the manual’s summary case studies. The factors influencing scour are complex and vary according to the type of structure. Protection works for preventing scour need to be designed to withstand the flow forces imposed on them and have to be practicable to build and install, while minimising adverse environmental effects. The manual therefore considers scour processes, estimating and assessing scour, protective measures, monitoring, environmental factors, risk assessments, and cost and benefit analyses. This manual is intended for engineers engaged in the design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures in the water environment that may be subject to scour of erodible beds or banks. It is equally relevant to UK and worldwide scour problems, and to new as well as existing structures.

Secondary Doc. 01/05/02 CIRIA Add icon
Bridge Condition Indicators Volume 1 - Commission Report

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After carrying out a survey of current bridge inspection methods in the UK, the authors have drawn up a new inspection reporting programme. However, it is recognised that many authorities will not be able to adopt the new system straight away. It is also noted that analysing historical data also has value.

General Information 01/04/02 ADEPT Add icon
TRL CR 297 Endurance testing of bridge deck expansion joints

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Premature failure of bridge deck expansion joints on highways has become of increasing concern to engineers and has created a serious maintenance problem with associated interruptions on busy roads. As part of a major research programme, initiated by the Transport and Road Research Laboratory (TRRL) to examine this problem, the University of Nottingham was commissioned to develop a suitable prototype laboratory testing device for expansion joints accommodating movements up to 50mm. An Expansion Joint Simulator was developed to perform accelerated tests on sections of bridge deck expansion joint of the buried or plug type. The equipment reproduced horizontal, vertical and rotational movements simulative of those induced by moving traffic as well as the long term movements associated with temperature changes. A series of tests on simplified buried joints was conducted which revealed that horizontal movements were more damaging than vertical or rotational ones. Failure mechanisms similar to those which occur on site developed. The results were used to produce a preliminary prediction method for joint lives.

Research 01/01/91 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
Slurry Surfacing Code of Practice

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To the highway engineer, Slurry surfacing offers a quick, efficient and cost effective way of maintaining skid resistance and protecting roads against the damaging effects of water and air. To obtain the best results it is necessary to give careful consideration to a wide range of detail and to plan and design the work carefully. The speed of the Slurry surfacing operation and the short duration of time during which motorists are inconvenienced is also an important issue. The purpose of Slurry surfacing is to re-profile the road surface, to provide texture, skid resistance and prevent the ingress of water and air and therefore helping to maximise the service life of the asset. A useful way of comparing the effectiveness of a Slurry surfacing, or other maintenance work, is to express it in terms of a ‘cost life index’. This is the cost per square metre of the work divided by the satisfactory life in years. It provides a measure of the “value for money” which the highway authority is achieving. A low ‘cost life index’ and “high value for money” is the result of high-quality work. Slurry Surfacings provide a low cost life index compared to conventional surfacings. The purpose of this Code is to identify the important aspects of the process, and to refer to other documents relating to good Slurry surfacing practice and so give practical guidance on achieving high quality. Slurry surfacing products are regulated by BSEN 12273:2008 which came into effect in UK in January 2011. In accordance with the Construction Products Regulations: 2011 (CPR), CE marking is a mandatory requirement from 1st July 2013.

Product 05/07/05 unknown Add icon
Innovative Patching Systems Code of Practice

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Innovative Patch Repair systems offer highway authorities an alternative to conventional hot-mix asphalt. They can provide a range of benefits including; • reduced cost up to 50% lower; • rapid installation up to 4 times faster; • minimal disruption to the road user; • zero waste generated; • low carbon footprint up to 85% lower; • some techniques require no saw cutting and jack hammering so no risk of Hand Arm Vibration A useful way of comparing the effectiveness of Innovative Patch Repairs is to express it in terms of a ‘cost life index’. This is the cost per square metre of the work divided by the satisfactory life in years. It provides a measure of the “value for money” which the highway authority is achieving. A low ‘cost life index’ and “high value for money” is the result of high-quality work. To the highway engineer Innovative Patch Repairs offer a fast, efficient and cost-effective way of removing defects; safety hazards; maintaining skid-resistance; preserving and protecting roads against the damaging effects of water. To obtain the best results it is necessary to give careful consideration to a wide range of detail, to plan and design the work carefully. The speed of the patching operation and the short duration of time during which motorists are inconvenienced is also an important consideration and advantage on roads carrying high volumes of traffic during peak periods. Spray Injection Patching uses high volume low pressure air to clean the road surface defect, before applying a bond coat of either a hot or cold bitumen emulsion. Aggregate is then propelled, using high volume air at low pressure, before mixing it with the bitumen emulsion moments before it is compacted as it is placed in the patch. For heavier trafficked applications, compaction by a vibrating plate is often used. The new repairs can then be trafficked immediately after laying. Detailed information is given in Appendix A. The process is also included in BS 434-2:2006. The biggest advantages this technique has over traditional methods in the speed in which they are able to be carried out, the added bonus if being able to mobilise to carry out small repairs that are permanent. Spray Injection Patching does not repair underlying road base problems. Thermal Road Repair involves applying heat to the upper 20-30mm of the surface course of a defective area to soften the material so it can be easily reworked with any extra materials added prior to compaction. Detail information is given in Appendix B. The biggest advantages this technique has over traditional methods is the speed in which they are able to be carried out, the added bonus of being able to mobilise to carry out small repairs that are permanent and that the whole process is completely recyclable. The compaction of the heated materials creates a homogenous bond between the repair and the adjacent surfacing. To obtain the best results it is necessary to utilise thermal repairs as part of preventative highway maintenance schemes. Thermal Road Patching does not repair underlying road base problems.

Product 04/07/05 unknown Add icon
Innovative Patching Products Code of Practice

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Innovative Patching Products (IPP) offer highway authorities an alternative to conventional hot-mix asphalt. They provide a range of benefits including; • reduced operational cost • faster installation • minimal disruption to the road user • low carbon footprint • dependent on the type of repair may not require saw cutting and jack hammering so reduced risk of Hand Arm Vibration and less waste produced • unlimited availability in bags and tubs with prolonged shelf life • Available in bulk bags and open bulk loads To the highway engineer IPP offer a fast, efficient and cost-effective way of removing defects; safety hazards; maintaining skid-resistance; preserving and protecting roads against the damaging effects of water. To obtain the best results it is necessary to give careful consideration to a wide range of detail, to plan and design the work carefully. The speed of the patching operation and the short duration of time during which motorists are inconvenienced is also an important consideration and advantage on roads carrying high volumes of traffic during peak periods. Cold Lay Asphalts are essentially asphalt mixtures manufactured using standard aggregates and bituminous binders mixed at elevated temperatures then allowed to cool to ambient prior to packaging in tubs or bags where required. They are cold applied materials used for temporary and permanent repairs. The new repairs can then be trafficked immediately after laying.

Product 04/07/05 unknown Add icon
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