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Title Document type Published Publisher
TRL PPR 255 Automated inspection of highway structures - Stage 2

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The quality of data provided by visual structure inspections can vary significantly from inspector to inspector and from inspection to inspection. Improvements to the quality of the inspections are therefore desirable. Research has been undertaken with a view to developing a system for collecting a series of images covering the entire surface of the structure, and then pre-processing the images prior to delivery to the engineers. The aim is that these pre-processed images should be able to give the engineer an overall view of the condition of the structure, and draw attention to those parts of the structure which contain most defects, or defect like features. The research has investigated two main areas: image collection and display; and image analysis. The image collection and display investigation considered the use of multiple imaging positions, single imaging positions, spherical images, and mathematically transforming images to re-project them as if they were taken perpendicular to the face of interest in order to remove the effects of parallax. The image analysis research considered the possibility of using high quality images of structures to provide a consistent and quantitative assessment of condition. Sufficient information and detail was seen in the images to perform meaningful and useful image based condition assessments. The focus of the research then switched to the use of automatic image processing techniques. The research in this area has focussed on reducing the incidence of false positive reports of defects, and delivering results to the engineers which make their job simpler, quicker and more cost effective.

Research 11/12/07 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
Iron and steel bridges: Condition appraisal and remedial treatment

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This guidance is aimed to meet the requirements of those with a general knowledge of bridge engineering and asset management and who need further information about the performances and specific requirements of iron and steel bridges. The book aims to provide and explain good practice, offer guidance for general application and give a source of information relevant to iron and steel bridges. Examples of successful schemes are cited and described. Case studies are also provided of both successful and unsuccessful examples of repair and strengthening projects.

Secondary Doc. 01/11/07 CIRIA Add icon
Prevention of Strikes on Bridges over Highways: A Protocol for Highway Managers and Bridge Owners

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This document gives guidance and advice to highway managers and bridge owners to minimise strikes on bridges that span public highways. It is intended for all highway authorities and for all local authorities, transport authorities and other public authorities and private companies who own bridges over public highways. The guidance applies to all bridges, with and without headroom signs, over vehicular highways.

Secondary Doc. 01/10/07 Department for Transport Add icon
TRL PPR 221 The performance of surfacing overlaying bridge deck waterproofing systems

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Information on the specification and performance of the surfacing overlaying concrete bridge decks owned by the Highways Agency is described. The main factors that affect the performance of surfacing of total thickness less than 100 mm, and the possible causes of the premature failures that have occurred on some bridges with liquid-applied waterproofing systems are identified. The results from laboratory tests that were carried out (i) to identify factors that affect the bond of surfacing to two bridge deck waterproofing systems, including wheel loading, (ii) to investigate the flow of sub-surface water through surfacing, and (iii) to measure the stiffness modulus of four waterproofing systems are presented. The local strains inducing by wheel loading in surfacing overlaying waterproofing systems that were calculated using the finite element method are reported. Recommendations are proposed to improve the durability of the surfacing on bridges that concern the provision of sub-surface drainage, the characteristics of the waterproofing system, the void content of the surfacing directly overlaying the system, and the bond of the surfacing to the system. The role of the red sand asphalt layer that is currently specified as an additional protective layer to the waterproofing system and is intended to act an indicator layer during resurfacing works is discussed, and its replacement is recommended.

Research 01/08/07 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
TRL PPR 221 The performance of surfacing overlaying bridge deck waterproofing systems

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Information on the specification and performance of the surfacing overlaying concrete bridge decks owned by the Highways Agency is described. The main factors that affect the performance of surfacing of total thickness less than 100 mm, and the possible causes of the premature failures that have occurred on some bridges with liquid-applied waterproofing systems are identified. The results from laboratory tests that were carried out (i) to identify factors that affect the bond of surfacing to two bridge deck waterproofing systems, including wheel loading, (ii) to investigate the flow of sub-surface water through surfacing, and (iii) to measure the stiffness modulus of four waterproofing systems are presented. The local strains inducing by wheel loading in surfacing overlaying waterproofing systems that were calculated using the finite element method are reported. Recommendations are proposed to improve the durability of the surfacing on bridges that concern the provision of sub-surface drainage, the characteristics of the waterproofing system, the void content of the surfacing directly overlaying the system, and the bond of the surfacing to the system. The role of the red sand asphalt layer that is currently specified as an additional protective layer to the waterproofing system and is intended to act an indicator layer during resurfacing works is discussed, and its replacement is recommended.

Research 01/08/07 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
DMRB Volume 1 Highway Structures: Approval Procedures and General Design - Section 2 Other Procedural Documents: BD 95/07 Treatment of Existing Structures on Highway Widening Schemes

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Making better use of existing roads, including the widening of highways, is consistent with Government objectives. The intention should be to reuse as much existing infrastructure as possible. Widening gives rise to many issues affecting existing structures. The treatment of these issues can have a major influence on the design and cost of the widening scheme. Valuable experience has been gained from a number of previous schemes, but this has not been recorded centrally and is not readily available to others in the form of advice. This Standard has been produced to set out the principles to be applied and to promulgate advice and guidance relating to the treatment of structures affected by widening schemes.

Primary Doc. 01/08/07 Highways Agency Add icon
TRL PPR 197 This report describes the available high-tech methods for the remote monitoring of highway structures for the purpose of providing information to assist in the management of these structur

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This report describes the available high-tech methods for the remote monitoring of highway structures for the purpose of providing information to assist in the management of these structures. Monitoring the performance of a structure, or one its component parts, during construction and in service, can provide vital information on the ability of the structure to maintain full serviceability throughout its design life and in many instances for much longer periods of time. In many cases, monitoring has helped to alleviate doubts about structural safety and serviceability, and has assisted in making decisions to keep structures in full or part service. Information on structural performance can also be used to develop improved design standards for future structures. The report focuses on the use of monitoring as a tool for the management of structures which have failed a strength assessment according to the requirements of BD 21 (DMRB 3.4.3). The report builds on the information contained in BD 79 (DMRB 3.4.18) which provides guidelines on the management of sub-standard bridges and the role that monitoring can play in order to keep these bridges in service. The report also considers the use of monitoring as a management tool for new and innovative structures.

Research 23/04/07 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
TRL PPR 197 High-tech remote monitoring for the management of highway structures

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This report describes the available high-tech methods for the remote monitoring of highway structures for the purpose of providing information to assist in the management of these structures. Monitoring the performance of a structure, or one its component parts, during construction and in service, can provide vital information on the ability of the structure to maintain full serviceability throughout its design life and in many instances for much longer periods of time. In many cases, monitoring has helped to alleviate doubts about structural safety and serviceability, and has assisted in making decisions to keep structures in full or part service. Information on structural performance can also be used to develop improved design standards for future structures. The report focuses on the use of monitoring as a tool for the management of structures which have failed a strength assessment according to the requirements of BD 21 (DMRB 3.4.3). The report builds on the information contained in BD 79 (DMRB 3.4.18) which provides guidelines on the management of sub-standard bridges and the role that monitoring can play in order to keep these bridges in service. The report also considers the use of monitoring as a management tool for new and innovative structures.

Research 23/04/07 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
TRL PPR 215 The effectiveness of sub-standard shear reinforcement in bridge decks

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This report contains the results of a study to examine the contribution made to the shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams of shear reinforcement that does not comply with the detailing requirements of the UK bridge design code. The main goal was to determine whether it is possible to relax the detailing requirements and remove any unnecessary conservatism that might exist in BD 44. The report contains the results of a literature review as well as the conclusions of a testing programme to investigate different details. These details include wide or varying spacing of links, links with less than the nominal area, and links not surrounding the main tension steel. The report discusses areas where relaxations may be possible, drawing on the conclusions of the literature review, the test programme and the analysis.

Research 14/04/07 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
TRL PPr 215 The effectiveness of sub-standard shear reinforcement in bridge decks

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This report contains the results of a study to examine the contribution made to the shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams of shear reinforcement that does not comply with the detailing requirements of the UK bridge design code. The main goal was to determine whether it is possible to relax the detailing requirements and remove any unnecessary conservatism that might exist in BD 44. The report contains the results of a literature review as well as the conclusions of a testing programme to investigate different details. These details include wide or varying spacing of links, links with less than the nominal area, and links not surrounding the main tension steel. The report discusses areas where relaxations may be possible, drawing on the conclusions of the literature review, the test programme and the analysis.

Research 14/04/07 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
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