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Title Document type Published Publisher
Kent Design Guide - Highway Structures

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This document was identified as part of the UKRLG Project on Design & Maintenance Guidance. Kent Highway Services' advice, guidance and information about highway structures for residential and industrial developments.

Secondary Doc. 02/02/07 UK Roads Liaison Group Add icon
TRL PPR 180 Performance of stress absorbing layers behind the abutments of Mount Pleasant Flyover

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The recent innovation of using stress absorbing layers behind the abutments of an integral bridge may offer a means of reducing the seasonal build up of lateral pressures caused by thermal expansion of the deck. Following the decision to use this technique at Mount Pleasant Flyover, an opportunity arose to carry out an instrumented case history study to evaluate the performance of the stress absorbing layers. After earlier laboratory and pilot scale trials, a layer of polyethylene foam was placed behind one abutment and a layer of recycled rubber crumb sheet behind the other. Performance monitoring was carried out during the construction period and for just over three years in service. Measurements were taken of changes in deck length, strains and temperatures in the deck, lateral earth pressures acting on the abutments, changes in the thickness of the stress absorbing layers and settlement behind the abutments. The implications of the findings upon the design procedures for integral bridges are discussed.

Research 08/01/07 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
TRL PPR 154 Application of bridge deck waterproofing to concrete aged from 3 to 28 days

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Highways Agency (HA) requirements relating to bridge deck waterproofing are contained in Departmental Standard BD 47/99. Waterproofing systems that have satisfied the requirements of the certification tests that are specified in the Standard are considered suitable for use on bridge decks where the concrete age is 28 days or more. To determine if waterproofing systems can perform satisfactorily when applied to younger concrete, a series of tests was carried out on the four waterproofing systems that are currently registered by the BBA and have Roads and Bridges Agrément Certificates, using the ‘standard’ primers specified in the Certificates, and a system approved for use in Germany. The systems were applied to concrete slabs manufactured from four mixtures aged from 3 to 28 days that had been subjected to different curing regimes. The slabs were waterproofed by the suppliers of the systems after they were surface dried in accordance with normal site practice, as deemed necessary by the suppliers. The day after the application of the systems, the slabs were overlaid with hot sand to simulate the high temperatures encountered during surfacing. Observations were made for blisters and tensile adhesion tests were carried out at -10oC, 23oC and 40oC from 28 days after waterproofing. It was concluded that the performance of waterproofing systems on bridges should not be adversely affected by application to concrete aged 7 days or more, provided they are applied in the same way as during the tests. In particular, the time between surface drying and the application of the primer should be as short as possible so that any moisture that may migrate from the bulk of the concrete material back to the surface is minimal. The findings from these tests were consistent with other research.

Research 04/12/06 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
TRL PPR 154 Application of bridge deck waterproofing to concrete aged from 3 to 28 days

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Highways Agency (HA) requirements relating to bridge deck waterproofing are contained in Departmental Standard BD 47/99. Waterproofing systems that have satisfied the requirements of the certification tests that are specified in the Standard are considered suitable for use on bridge decks where the concrete age is 28 days or more. To determine if waterproofing systems can perform satisfactorily when applied to younger concrete, a series of tests was carried out on the four waterproofing systems that are currently registered by the BBA and have Roads and Bridges Agrément Certificates, using the ‘standard’ primers specified in the Certificates, and a system approved for use in Germany. The systems were applied to concrete slabs manufactured from four mixtures aged from 3 to 28 days that had been subjected to different curing regimes. The slabs were waterproofed by the suppliers of the systems after they were surface dried in accordance with normal site practice, as deemed necessary by the suppliers. The day after the application of the systems, the slabs were overlaid with hot sand to simulate the high temperatures encountered during surfacing. Observations were made for blisters and tensile adhesion tests were carried out at -10oC, 23oC and 40oC from 28 days after waterproofing. It was concluded that the performance of waterproofing systems on bridges should not be adversely affected by application to concrete aged 7 days or more, provided they are applied in the same way as during the tests. In particular, the time between surface drying and the application of the primer should be as short as possible so that any moisture that may migrate from the bulk of the concrete material back to the surface is minimal. The findings from these tests were consistent with other research.

Research 04/12/06 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
TRL PPR 053 Strengthening of concrete structures using near surface mounted FRP reinforcement

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This report describes the use of near surface mounted (NSM) reinforcement as a technique for increasing the flexural capacity of concrete bridges. The principle of NSM reinforcement is to introduce additional reinforcement into the concrete section in such a way that it acts compositely with the rest of the section in the same way as if it were cast into the concrete. The aim of the project was to investigate the performance of concrete beams and slabs strengthened with NSM FRP reinforcement. The specific objectives were to review available information on the use of NSM reinforcement, to provide guidance on its use for concrete bridge deck strengthening and to incorporate the use of NSM strengthening into the Highways Agency standard for FRP strengthening (BD 85). The project consisted primarily of a desk study, aimed at making use of existing information and practice to provide guidance to enable the technique to be used in a safe, consistent and cost-effective manner. A small series of tests was also undertaken and used to verify any proposed design approach and to provide information on the practical issues that could be incorporated into the design guidelines. The focus of the study was on flexural strengthening. While it is recognised that the technique may provide significant benefits for shear strengthening, detailed study of this application was beyond the scope of this project. Details of the test programme were formulated based on the results of the literature review. The results of the load tests were used to supplement the information already available and to validate the proposed design approach. The report contains a description of the design, fabrication and strengthening of the beams. It also presents details of the load tests including behaviour under load, strength, mode of failure, and comparisons of the load test capacity with that derived from theoretical calculations. The report includes a practical design procedure which can be used for NSM FRP strengthening systems. The procedure is based on the literature review and test programme described in the earlier sections of the report. It is consistent with the design approach previously developed for externally bonded FRP strengthening which forms the basis of BD 85, the Highways Agency standard relating to the strengthening of bridges using FRP. The results of this research have been incorporated into the draft standard for the strengthening of bridge using fibre reinforced polymer (BD 85) in the Highways Agency’s Design Manual for Roads and Bridges.

Research 04/10/06 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
TRL PPR 053 Strengthening of concrete structures using near surface mounted FRP reinforcement

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This report describes the use of near surface mounted (NSM) reinforcement as a technique for increasing the flexural capacity of concrete bridges. The principle of NSM reinforcement is to introduce additional reinforcement into the concrete section in such a way that it acts compositely with the rest of the section in the same way as if it were cast into the concrete. The aim of the project was to investigate the performance of concrete beams and slabs strengthened with NSM FRP reinforcement. The specific objectives were to review available information on the use of NSM reinforcement, to provide guidance on its use for concrete bridge deck strengthening and to incorporate the use of NSM strengthening into the Highways Agency standard for FRP strengthening (BD 85). The project consisted primarily of a desk study, aimed at making use of existing information and practice to provide guidance to enable the technique to be used in a safe, consistent and cost-effective manner. A small series of tests was also undertaken and used to verify any proposed design approach and to provide information on the practical issues that could be incorporated into the design guidelines. The focus of the study was on flexural strengthening. While it is recognised that the technique may provide significant benefits for shear strengthening, detailed study of this application was beyond the scope of this project. Details of the test programme were formulated based on the results of the literature review. The results of the load tests were used to supplement the information already available and to validate the proposed design approach. The report contains a description of the design, fabrication and strengthening of the beams. It also presents details of the load tests including behaviour under load, strength, mode of failure, and comparisons of the load test capacity with that derived from theoretical calculations. The report includes a practical design procedure which can be used for NSM FRP strengthening systems. The procedure is based on the literature review and test programme described in the earlier sections of the report. It is consistent with the design approach previously developed for externally bonded FRP strengthening which forms the basis of BD 85, the Highways Agency standard relating to the strengthening of bridges using FRP. The results of this research have been incorporated into the draft standard for the strengthening of bridge using fibre reinforced polymer (BD 85) in the Highways Agency’s Design Manual for Roads and Bridges.

Research 04/10/06 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
TRL 655 Asphalt surfacing to bridge decks

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The current clause in the Specification for Highway Works requires waterproofing systems on concrete bridge decks to be overlaid with a 20 mm thick sand asphalt protection layer and binder and surface courses so that the total thickness of the three layers is 120 mm. However, the total thickness on some bridges has to be reduced and, in such cases, a number of premature failures have occurred. The objective was to develop a specification for surfacings on concrete bridges that will enhance the probability of achieving reasonable durability when they are less than the standard thickness. The research has included a literature search, a questionnaire and a laboratory test programme. The laboratory test programme identified some differences in their properties that have been used to identify the basis for the specification. A secondary test programme was undertaken specifically to look at tests for measuring the flexibility of asphalt materials. Based on the findings and other considerations, various additions and changes to the Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, Specification for Highway Works and Notes for Guidance on the Specification for Highway Works have been proposed.

Research 14/09/06 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
Asphalt surfacing to bridge decks

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The current clause in the Specification for Highway Works requires waterproofing systems on concrete bridge decks to be overlaid with a 20 mm thick sand asphalt protection layer and binder and surface courses so that the total thickness of the three layers is 120 mm. However, the total thickness on some bridges has to be reduced and, in such cases, a number of premature failures have occurred. The objective was to develop a specification for surfacings on concrete bridges that will enhance the probability of achieving reasonable durability when they are less than the standard thickness. The research has included a literature search, a questionnaire and a laboratory test programme. The laboratory test programme identified some differences in their properties that have been used to identify the basis for the specification. A secondary test programme was undertaken specifically to look at tests for measuring the flexibility of asphalt materials. Based on the findings and other considerations, various additions and changes to the Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, Specification for Highway Works and Notes for Guidance on the Specification for Highway Works have been proposed.

Research 14/09/06 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
TRL PPR 136 Survey of impregnated structures

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BD43/90 (1990) ‘Criteria and material for the impregnation of concrete highway structures’ was published by the Highways Agency (HA) in 1990. This document specified the requirements for new HA structures to be treated with hydrophobic pore-lining impregnants to provide protection against the ingress of de-icing salts. There was also a requirement to apply impregnants to all in-service structures provided that their condition was suitable. Since 1990 it has been assumed that all new bridges have been treated and that the maintaining agents responsible have implemented the policy of treating in-service bridges. The HA commissioned TRL to carry out a survey of the 14 maintaining agents in England to assess the extent and effectiveness of treating bridges which have been constructed since 1990 and the older in-service bridges. The survey involved inviting the maintaining agents to complete questionnaires designed to yield information on the number of new and in-service bridges that had been treated and seek their opinions on the effectiveness of the policy. Within the scope of the project, it was only possible to obtain detailed information from two maintaining agents. The results from one of the agents showed that over 90% of the post-1990 structures had been treated compared with 30% for the pre-1990 structures. Information from the other agent showed that some of their pre-1990 structures had been treated. No information was supplied for the post-1990 structures. The results from the survey have highlighted the limitations in the current record keeping of impregnation and associated monitoring. It is considered that it would be highly desirable for HA to set up a system which requires maintaining agents and authorities responsible for new construction to record information on impregnation to assist with planning future maintenance strategies. The information should be in a form that can be easily entered into the Highways Agency Database (SMIS).

Research 14/09/06 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
Masonry arch bridges: Condition appraisal and remedial treatment

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Masonry arch bridges have proved to be reliable, enduring structures and remain a vital part of the road, rail and waterway infrastructure in the UK and other countries; but they are facing a number of challenges associated with their extended period in service and the changing requirements of modern transport systems. In order to ensure the continued efficient use of these assets in the future it is necessary to manage and maintain them carefully, with due regard to, and an adequate understanding of, their special characteristics and needs. In a number of important ways these are distinct from those of more modern structures and the effective stewardship of masonry arch bridges requires some specialist knowledge and a particular approach. This report provides information and guidance which will assist those responsible for this task in achieving their aims.

Secondary Doc. 01/08/06 CIRIA Add icon
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