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Title Document type Published Publisher
Prevention of Strikes on Bridges - A protocol for Highway Managers & Bridge Owners - Issue 2

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The Protocol gives guidance and advice to Highway Authorities and Bridge Owners to prevent strikes on bridges that span public highways

Primary Doc. 11/07/14 Department for Transport Add icon
Guidance on the Design, Assessment and Strengthening of Masonry Parapets on Highway

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Masonry parapets are designed to provide protection for road users. This guidance document is designed to bring up to date previous advice on the design, assessment and strengthening of masonry parapets, drawing together guidance previously available in BS 6779:1999 Part 4 and in research papers, and bringing the terminology used in line with that used in BS EN 1317-2:1998 and BS EN 1996-1-1:2005

General Information 03/09/12 UK Roads Liaison Group Add icon
Management of Highway Structures Complementary Guidance

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Management of Highway Structures: A Code of Practice was published in September 2005. Since then Government Policy in respect to highway and structures management has developed and evolved in a number of areas, including the introduction of new statutory duties on highways authorities. There have also been developments/advances with regard to recognised good practice. To assist users of the Code, the Roads Liaison Group has prepared this complementary guidance which takes account of these changes and developments. Where appropriate, the complementary guidance provides details of where to find up-to-date information that can assist with the implementation of the good practice set out in the Code. Users of the Code should treat this complementary guidance as up-to-date and having the same status as the Code. Where paragraphs have been amended, they supersede the ones in the Code.

Primary Doc. 27/05/11 UK Roads Liaison Group Add icon
TRL PPR 180 Performance of stress absorbing layers behind the abutments of Mount Pleasant Flyover

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The recent innovation of using stress absorbing layers behind the abutments of an integral bridge may offer a means of reducing the seasonal build up of lateral pressures caused by thermal expansion of the deck. Following the decision to use this technique at Mount Pleasant Flyover, an opportunity arose to carry out an instrumented case history study to evaluate the performance of the stress absorbing layers. After earlier laboratory and pilot scale trials, a layer of polyethylene foam was placed behind one abutment and a layer of recycled rubber crumb sheet behind the other. Performance monitoring was carried out during the construction period and for just over three years in service. Measurements were taken of changes in deck length, strains and temperatures in the deck, lateral earth pressures acting on the abutments, changes in the thickness of the stress absorbing layers and settlement behind the abutments. The implications of the findings upon the design procedures for integral bridges are discussed.

Research 08/01/07 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
TRL553 Specification for suitability testing of stress absorbing materials behind integral bridge abutments

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In general joint-free integral bridges are considered more durable and cheaper in whole life cost than conventional bridges with joints and bearings. However seasonal cyclic thermal movements of the deck cause interactions between the bridge abutments and the retained soil such that lateral earth pressures behind the abutments are likely to progressively increase with time. One method of avoiding the development of these high lateral pressures is to use a low stiffness but compressible elastic backfill as a stress absorbing layer behind the abutment. The performance requirements for stress absorbing layers have been previously identified and this report provides a specification of methods of testing to assess if these requirements are satisfied.

Research 01/01/02 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
TRL 552 Suitability testing of materials to absorb lateral stresses behind integral bridge abutments

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Various innovative materials have been identified which may be suitable for use as stress absorbing layers behind integral bridge abutments to relieve any high lateral stresses which would otherwise build-up because of thermal expansion of the deck. A product from each of the generic types of material was selected for testing. The testing was aimed both at assessing the potential fitness for purpose of the type of material and also refining the test procedures which have been proposed for assessing their suitability for use as stress absorbing layers. The proposed tests included the determination of the modulus at the strain levels expected in service, the shear strength, and any permanent compression set locked-in after release of loading. Trials were undertaken to evaluate the effect of compacting free draining granular fill against some of the materials.

Research 01/01/02 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
Specification for suitability testing of stress absorbing materials behind integral bridge abutments

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In general joint-free integral bridges are considered more durable and cheaper in whole life cost than conventional bridges with joints and bearings. However seasonal cyclic thermal movements of the deck cause interactions between the bridge abutments and the retained soil such that lateral earth pressures behind the abutments are likely to progressively increase with time. One method of avoiding the development of these high lateral pressures is to use a low stiffness but compressible elastic backfill as a stress absorbing layer behind the abutment. The performance requirements for stress absorbing layers have been previously identified and this report provides a specification of methods of testing to assess if these requirements are satisfied.

Secondary Doc. 01/01/02 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
Performance under cyclic loading of the foundations of integral bridges

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Bridge construction with continuous deck and integral abutments eliminates the need for expansion joints and bearings resulting in better durability and reduced maintenance costs. However with integral bridges, seasonal temperature variations are capable of inducing significant movements of the abutments through expansion and contraction of the deck. If this movement is not adequately accommodated, sliding or rocking of the abutment upon its foundation may result in soil yielding and reduced bearing capacity, particularly for clays. This report reviews available data on low frequency cyclic loading and discusses the implications on the design parameters appropriate to the foundation problem. The performance of cohesive soils in an integral bridge foundation is compared with the behaviour of granular soils. The review is supported by results from laboratory triaxial tests which simulate the cyclic loading regime in an integral bridge situation.

Research 01/01/00 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
TRL 404 Reinforced earth bridge abutment at M8 motorway: four years of monitoring

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A reinforced earth bridge abutment has been monitored for both line and level over a period of almost four years (approximately 1400 days). The results indicate that the movements associated with the abutment are within the range that might be expected from a study of the available literature. Overall the trend of movement for both line and level is decreasing with time and the data indicates that the movement of the wall has largely ceased.

Research 01/01/99 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
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