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Junction Design

junction designThe process by which decisions are made regarding the selection of junction type and size, the location and assembling the components of a layout that result in providing adequate access onto or off a road or highway. Junction design also considers factors such as traffic flow, speeds, pedestrian movement, road layout and geometry.
Documents listed in this section cover the Provision and Spacing of Junctions, Design Issues and Objectives, Design Principles, Choice of Major/Minor Priority Junction, Priority Junctions, Visibility, Geometric Design, Road–User Requirements

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Documents

Title Document type Published Publisher
Designing for Walking

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This document explains how facilities for walking should be designed, following on from how they are planned, which is covered in Planning for Walking. Well-designed facilities that follow desire lines, are clutter-free, and are legible to all users will assist in enabling walking journeys and improve the experience of those already walking. The design of facilities should also consider the volumes of people walking along (actual or desired) or crossing streets, and the solutions will depend on a variety of considerations. The needs of all users should be carefully taken into account and prioritised as appropriate.

Secondary Doc. 19/03/15 CIHT Add icon
DSOPM004: Pedestrian Crossings

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This I’DGO design guidance relates to relates to pedestrian crossings. It was first published (in print and online) in July 2013 and launched at the annual conference of the Local Government Association. It is part of The Design of Streets with Older People in Mind; a toolkit for those who plan, design and maintain the public realm. It can be used as an aid to assessing the ‘walkability‘ of local neighbourhoods, particularly with regards to pedestrian safety and comfort. The guidance is based on the views over 1,600 pedestrians, street audits and key sources of existing UK guidance. It includes advice on providing accessible crossing amenities that send out a consistent message to all users and flags the importance of raising awareness among pedestrians as to how crossings work and why.

Secondary Doc. 02/07/13 Inclusive Design for Getting Outdoors (I'DGO) Add icon
Operation od Traffic Signals During Low Demands

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Traffic signal design is a science that has been developed through decades to a point where the maximum efficiency can be squeezed out of the most congested of junctions. Conflicting needs of all road users are measured, evaluated and optimised such that the ever-increasing and varying demands continue to be managed with ingenuity and perfection. But roads aren’t always busy. In many cases the very justification for signal control is based on a problem that may only exist for a couple of hours each weekday. Even the most congested networks have their quiet moment, yet, in a deserted city at 3 in the morning, signals still cycle for non-existent traffic. Any driver who ventures into this scenario may sit in frustration at a red light while the ‘intelligent’ control system optimises the signals for phantom conflicting demands. In other countries various techniques are applied to ‘demote’ signalised junctions to priority mode of operation, for example the flashing amber on main road/flashing red on minor road employed in some States of the USA, or signals that simply turn off overnight as in parts of Europe.

Research 04/10/12 Department for Transport Add icon
Traffic Management Techniques for Cyclists: Final Report

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This report focuses on a project undertaken for the Department for Transport (Traffic Management Division) in March 2011 entitled Investigation of Options for Traffic Management Techniques for Cyclists at Signallised Junctions in the Urban Environment. It describes the outcome of a desktop study that investigates the techniques that are in common usage both in the UK and overseas for cyclist provision at traffic signals.

Research 24/09/12 Department for Transport Add icon
DSOPM003: Tactile Paving

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This I’DGO design guidance relates to relates to tactile paving. It was first published (in print and online) in September 2012. It is part of The Design of Streets with Older People in Mind; a toolkit for those who plan, design and maintain the public realm. It can be used as an aid to assessing the ‘walkability‘ of local neighbourhoods, particularly with regards to the safety and comfort of footways. The guidance is based on the views of over 1,400 pedestrians, street audits, laboratory tests and key sources of existing UK guidance. It includes advice on the siting, laying and maintenance of blister and corduroy paving, including which colours and materials to specify.

Secondary Doc. 06/09/12 Inclusive Design for Getting Outdoors (I'DGO) Add icon
Trials of farside pedestrian signals at a Puffin crossing

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Puffin facilities were devised to increase pedestrian convenience and safety, reduce the number of unnecessary stops for drivers, and provide clearer and consistent signals to road-users by eliminating the flashing sequence at mid-block crossings and the pedestrian signal blackout at junctions. A feature of Puffin crossings is nearside pedestrian signals, the benefits being improved pedestrian compliance, comprehension and observation. However, concern has been expressed on the masking of the nearside signal and the absence of a visible signal once on the crossing. An on-street trial was commissioned by Transport Scotland at a Puffin crossing in Edinburgh fitted with both nearside and farside pedestrian aspects. The study sought to provide recommendations on the standard form of signalised pedestrian crossings in the Disability Discrimination Act: Good Practice Guide for Roads (Transport Scotland, 2009). Overall, the effects of the introduction of the farside signal were neutral or negative, except for the pedestrians’ stated preference for the modified arrangement.

Research 11/06/12 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
Why does the outdoor environment matter?

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If an older person cannot get out and about locally, they are at risk of becoming a ‘prisoner in their own home’. This four-page, full-colour booklet gives an overview of all I'DGO One and I'DGO TOO research findings on why getting outdoors matters to older people and what key features of the environment help or hinder them in doing so, day-to-day. The text addresses how the design of gardens, streets, neighbourhoods and open spaces can make a difference to older people’s wellbeing and quality of life, covering topics such as: tactile paving; intelligent road crossings; ‘DIY’ and other shared space streets; residential outdoor space; access to neighbourhood green space; the provision of bus stops and shelters; and footpath design and maintenance. It also includes key messages and implications for professionals and policy makers, short notes on sample size and methodology and details of the research team and its partners.

Research 26/04/12 Inclusive Design for Getting Outdoors (I'DGO) Add icon
TAL 1/12: The Traffic Signs (Amendment) (No.2) Regulations and General Directions 2011

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The Traffic Signs (Amendment) (No.2) Regulations and General Directions 2011 (SI 2011 No. 3041) further amends the Traffic Signs Regulations and General Directions 2002 (“TSRGD 2002” – SI 2002 No. 3113) and came into force on 30 January 2012. Copies of the new SI are available from TSO at a price of £27.25 each. In addition to SI 2011 No. 3041, this Traffic Advisory Leaflet also contains guidance relating to the other sets of amendment regulations listed below, which came into force since the introduction of TSRGD 2002. Therefore, in addition to the current editions of Traffic Signs Manual, this document should be read in conjunction with the listed SIs and associated Traffic Advisory Leaflets, by all those involved in designing and implementing traffic management schemes and in road traffic regulation generally. While this Traffic Advisory Leaflet is intended to assist readers, it is neither legal advice nor a substitute for reference to the relevant legislation - and should not be relied on as such.

General Information 07/03/12 Department for Transport Add icon
Traffic in Villages Toolkit

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Traffic in Villages is a new publication produced by Dorset AONB Partnership and written by Hamilton-Baillie Associates. It has been written as a toolkit to help Parish Councils and local groups understand the core principles for reducing speed, improving safety and retaining local distinctiveness. We hope that Traffic in Villages will help develop new working relationships between communities and highway authorities by equiping communities with the tools to look closely at their issues and begin to consider new solutions. It is illustrated with case studies and practical advice and includes a checklist to help local surveys. The Toolkit extends the key principles of Manual for Streets and Manual for Streets 2 to support rural communities coping with the impact of traffic in villages and small towns.

Primary Doc. 06/12/11 unknown Add icon
Infrastructure and Cyclist Safety

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The Department for Transport commissioned TRL to conduct a literature review to consider the role of infrastructure in the causation and reduction of injuries to cyclists. It was undertaken as part of the wider research programme, Road User Safety and Cycling, being led by TRL. Overall, it proved problematic to draw definitive conclusions from the literature. Taken as a whole, the most significant infrastructure-related risk factors for cyclists in single vehicle incidents on highways appear to be; slippery road (due to weather), and poor or defective road surface. For multi-vehicle collisions the infrastructure risk factors appear to be; posted speed limits, and encounters with other road users at junctions.

Research 28/11/11 Department for Transport Add icon
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