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Demand Management

Demand managementDemand management refers to the activities, methods, procedures, and tools that are used to manage and control of traffic levels on a road network, city or urban area to minimise the level of congestion and encourage changes in travel patterns and mode selection. The initiatives employed can range from short term (daily) controls or longer term strategies to limit traffic growth and offer more sustainable travel solutions.

Documents listed in this section cover Legislation, congestion charging, car sharing, travel plans, ramp metering and HOV lanes. The list above is not exhaustive but is an indication of the type of information that can be found in the documents. You can refine your search by selecting a narrower topic heading listed below.

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Title Document type Published Publisher
Guide to Intelligent Transport Systems for Local Authorities

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An introduction to the use of Intelligent Transport Systems for Local Authority Officers. This Guide is intended for readers who work in transport but are new to ITS as a topic.

General Information 22/05/14 ITS-UK Add icon
Economic and Environmental Benefits Achieved with ITS

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A short introduction to how Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) can deliver economic and environmental benefits. The featured examples are Smart Motorways, Point to Point Speed Enforcement, Parking Guidance Systems and Road User Charging.

General Information 17/12/13 ITS-UK Add icon
ITS United Kingdom Spring 2010 Review

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This Review contains articles on a variety of topics relating to Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). ITS United Kingdom publishes two reviews each year, with the support of its Members.

General Information 07/05/10 ITS-UK Add icon
Road Pricing - Update (2008-2009)

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This issue of Current Topics includes over 75 abstracts of reports, conference papers, books and journal articles which focus on the use of road pricing to manage traffic demand and to reduce the environmental impact of road traffic. Amongst the specific topics covered are charging principles (e.g. time, distance, congestion levels) methods of payment, modelling the effects of road pricing, driver response to road pricing and technological solutions. Road pricing in London, the results of the Stockholm trial and pilot schemes in the USA are discussed. These items have been selected from the material added to the Transport Research Laboratory's Library Database between 2008 and 2009. Much of the relevant English language published literature from the UK, USA, Australia and Europe is included; some of the non-UK literature is included courtesy of the OECD International Transport Research Documentation (ITRD) database.

General Information 01/12/09 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
Delivering Sustainable Low Carbon Travel: An Essential Guide for Local Authorities

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Sustainable travel initiatives have the potential to add real value to the next round of Local Transport Plans (LTP). This guide seeks to complement statutory LTP Guidance by providing support for developing a sustainable travel business case based on the latest evidence and good practice from around the country.

Primary Doc. 01/11/09 Department for Transport Add icon
Application Guide 44 - MOVA Traffic Control Manual

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MOVA traffic control manual, which explains the traffic principles, and the location and installation of detectors.

Secondary Doc. 01/07/09 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
Guidance on Transport Assessment

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This document, Guidance on Transport Assessment (GTA), is intended to assist stakeholders in determining whether an assessment may be required and, if so, what the level and scope of that assessment should be. It provides guidance on the content and preparation of TAs and TSs. However, it is not a statement of Government policy and therefore should be read in conjunction with, and in the context of, relevant Government policies, in particular those relating to transport and planning. It is also important to note that the decision to grant planning permission for a development proposal is based on several considerations. A TA focuses primarily on the transport implications of the development, and therefore the completion of a TA does not guarantee the granting of planning consent. This guidance applies to England only, and not Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. Developers should also have regard to any more specific current guidance issued by local authorities. In particular, developers operating in the vicinity of London should note the guidance issued by Transport for London (TfL). Planning applications meeting the criteria for referral to the Mayor should follow TfL’s Transport Assessment best practice guidance (May 2006) at

Secondary Doc. 01/03/07 Department for Transport Add icon
Know Your Traffic Signs

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Why know your traffic signs? Traffic signs play a vital role in directing, informing and controllingroad users' behaviour in an effort to make the roads as safe aspossible for everyone. This makes a knowledge of traffic signsessential. Not just for new drivers or riders needing to pass theirtheory test, but for all road users, including experiencedprofessional drivers. Keeping up to date We live in times of change. Society, technology and the economy allplay their part in changing the way we travel. New road signsconveying new messages and in new formats are introduced fromtime to time, so drivers or riders who passed their driving test a fewyears ago need to keep up to date or run the risk of failing tounderstand or comply with recently introduced signs. A few examples of events that called for new signs include: • Britain's first motorway • Pelican crossings • Reintroduction of trams • Advanced stop lines • Vehicle-activated signs • Active Traffic Management. Responsibility for traffic signsResponsibility for the road network in the UK is split among:• the Highways Agency in England• the Welsh Assembly Government in Wales• the Scottish Executive in Scotland• and local or regional highway authorities. The central administrations above are responsible for the UK’sstrategic road network. Strategic roads are the highways that linkcities, areas of population, ports and airports. Most motorways andsome “A” roads are strategic roads. Local or regional highway authorities are responsible for localroads, and this includes a few motorways, all other “A” roads andall other public roads. While responsibility for placing, erecting andmaintaining traffic signs is split among these bodies, it is importantthat signs are consistent both in appearance and in the way theyare used.To ensure that the UK has a uniform traffic signing system, signsmust conform to the designs prescribed in the Traffic SignsRegulations and General Directions (although some signs mayhave been specially authorised by the Secretary of State). The Traffic Signs Manual, published by TSO, provides detailedguidance for those responsible for designing and installing traffic signs.

Secondary Doc. 01/01/07 Department for Transport Add icon
TAL 03/06 High Occupancy Vehicle Lanes

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High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes are a method of utilising spare capacity in existing bus lanes. They can also be used where the introduction of new bus lanes cannot be justified on bus frequency grounds, or as part of a policy to encourage car sharing. The basic principle is that only vehicles carrying two or more people, buses and two wheeled vehicles are permitted to use the lanes during the hours of operation. Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) may, or may not be allowed access. Only three non-motorway schemes of this type are currently in operation in the UK, in Leeds, South Gloucestershire (on the northern outskirts of Bristol) and North Somerset (A370 Long Ashton Bypass). A number of other highway authorities are giving active consideration to introducing schemes of this type. This Traffic Advisory Leaflet reviews the pioneering schemes in Leeds and South Gloucestershire and provides guidance for anyone considering the conversion of existing bus lanes into HOV lanes, or the introduction of HOV lanes on non-motorway roads where there are currently no bus priority facilities. Like conventional bus lanes, HOV lanes can be located at the nearside or offside of the carriageway, or as contra flow lanes in otherwise one-way traffic schemes. It is recommended that scheme designers should consult the Department for Transport before proceeding with design work on the latter two alternatives because of possible signing and enforcement problems. Although this leaflet describes HOV lanes implemented for vehicles carrying two or more occupants, authorities might like to consider a minimum occupancy of 3 people. In either case, it is important to consider the likely changes in travel behaviour that HOV lanes might initiate. For example, HOV lanes to encourage car sharing might be in conflict with local policies to reduce car use and promote public transport, or walking and cycling to schools.

Primary Doc. 01/12/06 Department for Transport Add icon
DMRB Volume 9 Network - Traffic Control and Communications - Section 3 Traffic Control and Surveillance - Standards of Provision: HD 20/05 Detector Loops for Motorways Primary Doc. 01/11/05 Highways Agency Add icon
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