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Title Document type Published Publisher
Commuted Sums for Maintaining Infrastructure Assets

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Commuted sums were provided for under the Highways Act 1980 as a payment in lieu of providing the facility. Payments can either be a lump sum or phased payments following set triggers. Contributions can be sought towards either physical provision, such as roads or landscaping, or social provision, such as affordable housing or provision of community facilities. The use of commuted sums for future maintenance is not new, but there is considerable variation in their use and practice by highway authorities in relation to new developments. As a result, the mechanism has become unpopular with many developers. The aim of the new CSS guidance document is to offer a transparent and consistent approach to commuted sums. It believes the clarity of approach should help remove the uncertainty and risk for developers at an early stage in the process.

Secondary Doc. 16/11/09 ADEPT Add icon
Standard PCN Codes v6.5.1

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This is the latest release of contraventions codes for use from Sunday 1 November.

General Information 01/11/09 British Parking Association Add icon
Delivering Sustainable Low Carbon Travel: An Essential Guide for Local Authorities

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Sustainable travel initiatives have the potential to add real value to the next round of Local Transport Plans (LTP). This guide seeks to complement statutory LTP Guidance by providing support for developing a sustainable travel business case based on the latest evidence and good practice from around the country.

Primary Doc. 01/11/09 Department for Transport Add icon
The Handbook of Road Safety Measures

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Synopsis The second edition of the "Handbook of Road Safety Measures" (previously published in 2004) gives state-of-the-art summaries of current knowledge regarding the effects of 128 road safety measures. It covers all areas of road safety including: traffic control; vehicle inspection; driver training; publicity campaigns; police enforcement; and, general policy instruments. With many original chapters revised and several new ones added, extra topics covered in this edition include: post-accident care; DUI legislation and enforcement; environmental zones; and speed cameras.

General Information 16/10/09 CIHT Add icon
Resource Guide for Local Authorities: Transport Solutions for Older People

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The document contains information including web links and good practice examples on schemes and resources to help local authorities when considering the needs of older people for transport planning.

Secondary Doc. 01/10/09 Department for Transport Add icon
Setting Local Speed Limits in Wales

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The guidelines are to be used for setting all local speed limits on single and dual carriageway roads in both urban and rural areas. It brings together the main features of other published guidance on speed limit related issues including speed related road traffic regulation and signing, street lighting, speed limits in rural communities, and 20mph speed limits and zones. Increasing the use of 20mph limits across Wales is a One Wales commitment, we are working with Local Authorities to extend 20mph schemes and the safer routes to schools/in communities programme. The introduction of 20mph limits is generally most appropriate for non-trunk roads, although the new guidance also introduces the potential for time-bound 20mph limits on trunk roads such as at peak periods when children are either going to or from school.

Primary Doc. 01/10/09 Welsh Assembly Government Add icon
Review of 20 mph Zone and Limit Implementation in England

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AECOM, in association with the Tavistock Institute, was commissioned by the Department for Transport to undertake a review of the implementation of 20 mph zones and limits in England. This work was part of the wider Local Road User Safety Evaluation and Action Learning commission. The review considered where and when zones and limits are being implemented, the rationale for their use and the characteristics of supporting traffic calming measures. The findings have enhanced the understanding of the different approaches to 20 mph zone and limit use and implementation, and identified the characteristics of recently implemented schemes.

Research 29/09/09 Department for Transport Add icon
TRL PPR 414 The effect of traffic signal strategies on the safety of pedestrians

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TRL was commissioned by the Department for Transport (DfT) to consider the effect of signal control strategies on casualties, particularly for pedestrians and to provide input into the decisions faced by practitioners in optimising the split between safety and delay. A literature review was undertaken to determine what research had been undertaken to date. Some instances of poor pedestrian behaviour were discussed by focus groups in order to gain insight into the underlying reasons. A total of 16 signal-controlled junctions and 6 mid-block crossings with different forms of signal control were selected as case studies. Details of the junction or crossing layout and signal timings were recorded. A four hour video survey was undertaken at each site and flow counts and extensive behavioural analysis undertaken. Alternative strategies were then tested and any changes in pedestrian behaviour evaluated. TRANSYT modelling was undertaken to investigate the trade-off between vehicle and pedestrian delay. One of the key objectives of the project was to provide advice to Local Highway Authorities regarding the application of signal control strategies. Given that the results from the work did not indicate any strong relationship between signal control strategy and safety, guidance will necessarily be based as much on common sense and experience as on specific safety issues. However, there is an implication that seeking to increase pedestrian compliance with the signals is desirable. Increasing compliance is likely to be achieved mainly by reducing pedestrian waiting times.

Research 24/09/09 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
Speed flow and density of motorway traffic

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It seems intuitively obvious that the more traffic that tries to use a given section of road, the slower it must move, but the precise mechanisms behind this relationship are surprisingly elusive. The availability of large amounts of data collected automatically raises the possibility of validating theories and models. This Insight Report examines the features of some actual data and speed–flow–density relationships, and “classical” models of speed, flow and density in the context of the wealth of detailed traffic data now available. Data from detectors support the idea that average speed decreases with increasing traffic density, although the data suggest that this decrease is only significant above a certain density. Below this, speed is virtually independent of density. This is not a feature of “classical” macroscopic models, suggesting that none of them fully describes traffic over the full range of possible densities. The role of speed, flow and density in queuing theory is also examined, including a case study of modelling a moving bottleneck.

Research 17/09/09 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
TRL 641 Psychological Traffic Calming

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Excessive and inappropriate speeds are a major concern for road safety. Such speeds have an adverse effect on the number and severity of road traffic accidents and significantly reduce the quality of life in many urban and rural areas. Physical traffic calming measures - road humps and chicanes, for example - can generate substantial reductions in vehicle speeds and accidents, but can be unpopular. On behalf of the Department for Transport, TRL has developed and tested alternative traffic calming techniques that make greater use of psychological (non-physical) measures, but are intended to still have a significant speed-reducing capability. Psychological theories that provide insight into how specific road design measures might reduce driving speeds are reviewed. Ideas for traffic calming based on these principles are illustrated using photomontage and evaluated by means of focus groups, a questionnaire survey, on the TRL Driving Simulator and finally in on-road trials.

Research 05/09/09 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
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