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Title Document type Published Publisher
Interim Evaluation of the Implementation of 20 mph Speed Limits in Portsmouth

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Portsmouth City Council (PCC) is the first local authority in England to implement an extensive area-wide 20 mph Speed Limit scheme – that is introducing signed 20 mph limits largely without traffic calming, covering most of its residential roads which previously had a 30 mph speed limit. This is therefore an important scheme which can be compared to more traditional 20 mph Zones, which involve extensive traffic calming. This document results from an interim evaluation of the impact of the scheme, focusing on early monitored results. It reports on monitored changes in traffic speeds, traffic volume and road casualties, comparing data for ‘Before’ and ‘After’ scheme implementation as well as resident perception of impacts through qualitative surveys. The document is intended to provide an early transfer of information to other local highway authorities on the effectiveness of implementing speed limits through use of signs alone and without providing any accompanying traffic calming measures. The implementation of the 20 mph Speed Limit scheme was carried out using a combination of post-mounted terminal and repeater signs. 20 mph speed limit roundel road markings were also provided at street entry points on the carriageway adjacent to the terminal post-mounted signs. In some cases of limited visibility, they were also provided adjacent to the repeater signs. For ease of installation the city was divided into six sectors: Central East, Central West, South East, South West, North East and North West. This amounted to 94% of road length (410 km of the 438 km of road length) in PCC. On most of the roads where the speed limit signs and road markings were installed, the average speeds before installation were less than or equal to 24 mph. The relatively low speeds before the scheme implementation were because of narrow carriageways and on-street parking, which further reduces effective width of the carriageways. 20 mph signs were also provided on roads with average speeds greater than 24 mph in order to avoid inconsistencies in the signed speed limits in Portsmouth. One of the aims of the scheme was to be self-enforcing (avoid the need of extra Police enforcement) and partly to support the low driving speeds, and encourage less aggressive driving behaviour. Overall there was an increase in the number of sites that demonstrated speeds of 20 mph or less after the implementation of the scheme. Many sites already had low average speeds of 20 mph or less before the scheme was implemented. At the sites monitored with higher average speeds before the scheme was introduced, there were significant reductions in average speeds. For example for the group of sites monitored with average speeds of 24 mph or more before the scheme was introduced, the average speed reduction was 6.3 mph. The average reduction in mean speeds on all roads was 1.3 mph. There is insufficient data to comment about the effects of the scheme on traffic routes and volumes. The expectation is that because most roads had fairly slow average speeds before the scheme was implemented, that the changes are likely to have been modest. Comparing the 3 years before the scheme was implemented and the 2 years afterwards, the number of recorded road casualties has fallen by 22% from 183 per year to 142 per year. During that period casualty numbers fell nationally – by about 14% in comparable areas. There are no large apparent disparities between the casualty changes for different groups of road users (for example pedestrians compared to motorists) or between crashes with different causes. The number of deaths and serious injuries rose from 19 to 20 per year. Because the total numbers of deaths and serious injuries and of casualties by road user type and cause are relatively low, few inferences about the scheme’s impacts should be drawn from these figures. Qualitative surveys indicate that the scheme was generally supported by residents, although most of the respondents would like to see more enforcement of the 20 mph speed limits. The survey suggests that the introduction of the scheme has made little difference to the majority of respondents in the amount they travelled by their chosen mode. Levels of car travel stayed similar, whilst the level of pedestrian travel, pedal cyclist travel and public transport usage had increased for a small number of respondents. In conclusion, early figures suggest that the implementation of the 20 mph Speed Limit scheme has been associated with reductions in road casualty numbers. The scheme has reduced average speeds and been well-supported during its first two years of operation.

Research 16/09/10 Department for Transport Add icon
TRL PPR 466 Safety evaluation of Compact MOVA Signal Control Strategy

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MOVA traffic signal control is used at approximately 3000 junctions in the UK. The recently released MOVA M5 has a facility to exclude the use of the more distance ‘IN’ detectors (normally around 8 seconds journey time from the stop line) on some or all of the approaches, thus saving ducting and maintenance cost. Commonly known as ‘Compact MOVA’, it can only be used on low speed approaches (where the 85th percentile speed is less than 35mph). The performance of Compact MOVA has been found to be better than traditional Vehicle Actuation control, matching standard MOVA in saturated conditions. Studies have also shown that Compact MOVA can significantly reduce pedestrian delay at stand-alone signal controlled pedestrian crossings with negligible effect on vehicular delay when compared with Vehicle Actuation. Previous risk assessments and a limited safety study indicate that Compact MOVA is as least as safe as Vehicle Actuation. The research in this project, commissioned by the Department for Transport, is necessary to confirm, or otherwise, these findings, and give confidence in the advice given to Local Traffic Authorities. This report describes the study carried out at three stand-alone Puffin crossings and two junctions. The investigation includes conflict analysis and an assessment of pedestrian and driver behaviour.

Research 13/05/10 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
TRL PPR 409 Investigating driver distraction: the effects of video and static advertising

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Roadside advertising is a common sight on urban roads. Previous research suggests the presence of advertising increases mental workload and changes the profile of eye fixations, drawing attention away from the driving task. This study was conducted using a driving simulator and integrated eye-tracking system to compare driving behaviour across a number of experimental advertising conditions. Forty eight participants took part in this trial, with three factors examined; Advert type, position of adverts and exposure duration to adverts. The results indicated that when passing advert positions, drivers: • spent longer looking at video adverts; • glanced at video adverts more frequently; • tended to show greater variation in lateral lane position with video adverts; • braked harder on approach to video adverts; • drove more slowly past video adverts. The findings indicate that video adverts caused significantly greater impairment to driving performance when compared to static adverts. Questionnaire results support the findings of the data recorded in the driving simulator, with participants being aware their driving was more impaired by the presence of video adverts. Through analysis of the experimental data, this study has provided the most detailed insight yet into the effects of roadside billboard advertising on driver behaviour.

Research 12/05/10 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
ITS United Kingdom Spring 2010 Review

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This Review contains articles on a variety of topics relating to Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). ITS United Kingdom publishes two reviews each year, with the support of its Members.

General Information 07/05/10 ITS-UK Add icon
Specification for the Reinstatement of Openings in Highways

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The SROH sets out standards to ensure highway is returned to use following work by statutory undertakers to the appropriate standard. This statutory Code is published by the Secretary of State under Section 71 of the New Roads and Street Works Act 1991. Changes in SROH provide a wider range of approved materials and working methods to undertakers carrying out works.

Primary Doc. 01/04/10 Department for Transport Add icon
Abnormal Load Movements - process map

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This document was identified as part of the UKRLG Project on Design & Maintenance Guidance. Process map detailing steps in authorising abnormal load movement on the roads of West Lothian Council.

Secondary Doc. 01/04/10 UK Roads Liaison Group Add icon
Street Lighting Design, Adoption Process and Specification Guide - Appendix A

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This document was identified as part of the UKRLG Project on Design & Maintenance Guidance. Wokingham's guidance to developers.

Secondary Doc. 28/03/10 UK Roads Liaison Group Add icon
Working Together to Protect Crowded Places guidance

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The UK faces a real threat from terrorism and crowded places remain an attractive target. To combat this threat, the Government has developed a strategic framework to reduce the vulnerability of crowded places to terrorist attack. The ‘Working Together to Protect Crowded Places’ guidance explains this framework and in particular the contributions that key partners, including local authorities, police, Government Offices, devolved administrations and businesses can make. ‘Crowded Places: The Planning System and Counter-Terrorism’ and ‘Protecting Crowded Places: Design and Technical Issues’ provide advice about counter-terrorism protective security measures to those involved in the planning and design of the built environment.

General Information 17/03/10 Department for Transport Add icon
Designing Streets: A Policy Statement for Scotland

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Designing Streets is the first policy statement in Scotland for street design and marks a change in the emphasis of guidance on street design towards place-making and away from a system focused upon the dominance of motor vehicles. It has been created to support the Scottish Government’s place-making agenda and is intended to sit alongside the 2001 planning policy document Designing Places, which sets out government aspirations for design and the role of the planning system in delivering these.

Primary Doc. 02/03/10 Scottish Executive Add icon
Cycling safety and HGV communication development: TfL (03/10)

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This project explores the attitudes and behaviours of cyclists and goods vehicle drivers regarding road safety and messaging opportunities that resonate for both audiences.

Research 01/03/10 Transport for London Add icon
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