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Title Document type Published Publisher
Level Crossings - a guide for Managers, Designers & Operators

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It updates the earlier guidance, Railway Safety Principles and Guidance, Part 2, Section E (RSPG2E) Guidance on level crossings (first published in 1996) to reflect recent developments in good practice, technology and industry standards and to take account of changes in the law and recommendations from the Rail Accident and Investigation Branch. It also incorporates the previously separate guidance on the level crossing order making process which is managed by ORR.

General Information 01/08/11 CIHT Add icon
Assessing the perceived safety risk from quiet electric and hybrid vehicles to vision impaired pedestrians

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Over 90% of the UK population hears traffic noise at home and approximately 10% regard this exposure as highly annoying. The Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC aims to prevent/reduce environmental noise from sources such as road traffic where necessary and preserve noise quality where it is good. Potential mechanisms for achieving this include the increased use of quieter vehicles (through reduced powertrain and tyre noise) and low-noise road surfaces. One option for quieter vehicles is the use of vehicles powered by electric motors, either fully electric or hybrid vehicles running in electric mode. However, groups representing the vision-impaired, both in the UK and internationally, have raised concerns that, due to their low noise, such vehicles may pose an increased accident risk to vision-impaired pedestrians. The Department for Transport has commissioned TRL to investigate the accident risk posed by such vehicles and compare it with that for equivalent vehicles with traditional internal combustion engines, and to determine whether electric/hybrid vehicles are audibly more difficult to detect. This report presents the findings from the study, based upon a review of accident statistics, a programme of practical measurements to compare the noise of electric/hybrid and internal combustion engine vehicles, and a small-scale subjective assessment of the noise from these vehicles involving visually impaired participants.

Research 01/08/11 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
TRL PPR 562 - A track trial research study on allowing motorcycles use of Advanced Stop Lines

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In the UK, Advanced Stop Lines (ASLs) are an area in front of the main traffic stop line at signal-controlled junctions that can currently only be used by cyclists. This area provides cyclists with the opportunity to wait in-front of traffic, giving them a number of benefits, including priority. This report summarises the results of a track trial in which motorcyclists were also permitted to use ASLs at signal-controlled junctions. The study’s objectives were to identify the effects on safety and behaviour, assess the opinions of cyclists and motorcyclists and assist the DfT in establishing whether further work on the concept was appropriate. A four-day trial was carried out on TRL’s test track with 30 participants on each day. A statistically robust design was used to ensure that different junction layouts could be compared with varying traffic flows and patterns of movement. Key results included that the turning movement mainly determined the chosen point of entry, with many of the participants positioning themselves for their planned turn before entering the ASL. The scheme did not delay cyclists getting into the ASL, nor did it reduce the ability of cyclists to reach the ASL. However, the scheme did restrict the ability of some cyclists to stop in the lateral position within the ASL that was considered to be the most appropriate for their planned turn. Observed difficulties were more prevalent when there were large numbers of participants using the ASL, but such situations would only be expected to occur rarely on-street where there are high flows. The scheme did not delay cyclists in leaving the ASL after the start of the Green Phase, but it did reduce the proportion of cyclists who cleared the junction ahead of motorcyclists. Both cyclists (69%) and motorcyclists (92%) were in favour of the scheme. Some of the cyclists expressed difficulties, but these tended to be a minority.

Research 23/05/11 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
Traffic Signs (Amendment) Regulations and General Directions 2011

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The Secretary of State— (a)in exercise of powers conferred by section 64(1), (2) and (3) of the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984(1), makes the regulations contained in Part 1 of this instrument; and (b)in exercise of powers conferred by section 65(1) of that Act(2), gives the general directions contained in Part 2 of this instrument. In relation to the regulations contained in Part 1 of this instrument, the Secretary of State has, in accordance with section 134(2) of that Act, consulted with such representative organisations as the Secretary of State thought fit.

Legislation 09/05/11 Department for Transport Add icon
Traffic Advisory Leaflet 2/11 - Portable Traffic Signals for the Control of Vehicular Traffic

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This leaflet provides advice on the use of portable traffic signals at road and street works. Detailed advice is already given on the design and use of these, primarily in: - An Introduction to the Use of Portable Vehicular Signals ('the Pink Book') - Safety at Street Works and Road Works – A Code of Practice ('the Red Book') - Traffic Signs Manual Chapter 8. This leaflet is designed to complement these documents by providing a summary of the main requirements. It does not cover portable signal-controlled pedestrian facilities. For advice on these, please see Traffic Advisory Leaflet 3/11: Signal-controlled pedestrian facilities at portable traffic signals. Portable traffic signals might be required as a consequence of road works, or street works. They should not be confused with temporary traffic light signals, which are permanent signals mounted in a temporary fashion.

Secondary Doc. 09/05/11 Department for Transport Add icon
Traffic Advisory Leaflet 3/11 - Signal-controlled Pedestrian Facilities at Portable Traffic Signals

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This leaflet is intended to provide advice to those who may be involved in or considering providing portable pedestrian crossing facilities, whether stand-alone or at road works. The Traffic Signs Regulations and General Directions 2002 (TSRGD) were amended in 2011 to allow the use of pedestrian facilities with portable traffic signals. Traffic Advisory Leaflet 2/11: Portable traffic signals for the control of vehicular traffic provides advice on the use of portable traffic signals to control vehicular traffic only. Much of that advice is relevant to portable pedestrian facilities, and TAL 2/11 should be read in conjunction with this leaflet. Other advice is given in: - An Introduction to the Use of Portable Vehicular Signals ('the Pink Book'), - Safety at Street Works and Road Works – A Code of Practice ('the Red Book') - Traffic Signs Manual Chapter 8. The advice in this leaflet also supersedes that given in paragraph 1, page 1 of the Pink Book. For the purposes of this leaflet, road works are any works carried out primarily to improve or maintain the highway, such as resurfacing of the road. Street works are any works carried out by statutory undertakers to place or maintain apparatus such as water mains or electricity cables ('undertaker' is defined in the New Roads and Street Works Act 1991). To simplify this leaflet, both road and street works will be referred to as road works. This leaflet only considers circumstances in which works are carried out by statutory undertakers, or permitted by the traffic authority.

Secondary Doc. 09/05/11 Department for Transport Add icon
The characteristics of pedestrian road traffic accidents and the resulting injuries

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This Insight Report explores the characteristics of pedestrian road traffic accidents, and the injuries received by the pedestrian casualties. These are often the most vulnerable members of society, so an understanding of the causes and consequences of pedestrian accidents is important as the demographics of the population changes in the coming years. Recent changes in vehicle design, including the recent legislation on pedestrian protection, may also affect the consequences of pedestrian accidents. This report has used a number of different sources of information. These include medical data collected by all hospitals in England (the Hospital Episode Statistics) and more in-depth data collected by the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service, which operates from the Royal London Hospital. More traditional sources of accident data have also been used, including the national police STATS19 database, in-depth accident studies (On The Spot and the Co-operative Crash Injury Study) and police fatal file reports. This Insight Report provides a snapshot of the causes and consequences of pedestrian traffic accidents, which shows the most important considerations for reducing pedestrian casualties. Continuous monitoring is required to determine the results of changing vehicle design and pedestrian demographics.

Research 04/04/11 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
Development and Implementation of a Vehicle–Pedestrian Conflict Analysis Method: Adaptation of a Vehicle–Vehicle Technique

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This paper examines the development, use, and evaluation of a new traffic conflict analysis technique that specifically addresses pedestrian–vehicle conflicts with the intention of being applicable to shared-space environments.

Research 14/03/11 unknown Add icon
Puffin Accident Study Report

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Puffin facilities were developed to replace Pelican crossings at mid-block sites and farside pedestrian signals at junctions. Research has shown that compared to existing pedestrian signal facilities, Puffin facilities can reduce both driver and pedestrian delay at junctions, and improve pedestrian comfort (particularly for older pedestrians and those with impaired mobility). Previous research has also indicated safety benefits. The aim of this study was to quantify the safety benefit.

Research 08/03/11 Transport Research Laboratory Add icon
Planning Policy Guidance 13: Transport

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Planning Policy Guidance 13's (PPG13) objectives are to integrate planning and transport at the national, regional, strategic and local level and to promote more sustainable transport choices both for carrying people and for moving freight.

Primary Doc. 03/01/11 Department for Communities and Local Government Add icon
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